Student Research 2021

International Academy of Aviation Industry

UNCERTAINTY-BASED DESIGN OF A HIGH-LIFT MECHANISM

ACADEMIC YEAR 2021

The purpose of this research is to propose the six-bars linkages model for synthesis of high lift mechanism of an aircraft which is very important mechanism to generate lift-drag ratio in other flight conditions. The performance in design of six-bars mechanism depends on an optimization technique. In the past, the design in high lift mechanism starts from pure calculation of aerodynamics, then properly mechanism is synthesized for use, also called mechanism design is decoupled. Then this technique does not respond to the new design in high lift mechanism due to the consistency between them, so the new technique for generating path and motion is proposed.

The objective of minimization are position and angle of flap because of the limitation in applicable space. While generating with the constraint and the use of an optimizer Metaheuristics MHs. The result shows a great performance of the new mechanism in simply problem synthesis. Furthermore, the new formulation of this objective function is proposed, Reliability technique which expects to enhance the performance of the high lift mechanism due to the uncertainty of the mechanism, so this technique is later extended to reliability based design optimization RBDO of high lift mechanism. The result reveals that the proposed technique does well in synthesize the high lift mechanism problem with uncertainty and also increase the reliability of the model in use. In addition, reliability also prevents the unrealizable mechanism.

STUDY OF ANALYSIS TO MANAGE AIRSPACE SAFELY AND EFFICIENTLY

ACADEMIC YEAR 2021

This project is about a study to investigate factors and essential elements in developing and managing airspace safely and efficiently. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) had reported accidents and incidents involving aircraft since 2010. In 2018, ICAO stated that states did not have adequate procedure to monitor safety standards, resulting in higher risk. ICAO has identified problems relating to accidents and incidents which must be rectified. ICAO has also specified that every state is required to have a policy to manage airspace to cope with increased number of aircraft. This is to reduce any loss from air transport as much as possible. Thailand has a monitoring system under the Universal Safety Oversight Audit Program (USOAP-ICAO) in compliance with ICAO standards by overseeing all essential points relating to the Civil Aviation Decree 2015. It is of great importance that the decree is followed to provide support and improvement in safety standards in general. Prior to the emergence of Covid-19, every country including Thailand experienced a continuous increase of flights, leading to several delays for departures and arrivals. Both Suvarnabhumi and Don Mueang Airports were particularly affected with more incidents reported concerning safety issues. Air Transport is vital for every country, and it is expected that there is going to be a return to an increase in air traffic soon along with the blueprint for the development of air transport in the next 15 years. It is the intention of the researchers to study important elements in managing air space safely and efficiently, using qualitative and quantitative methods. Information was obtained from professionals in aviation such as airline pilots, domestic and international, aviation service providers including air traffic providers and engineers. This study includes data at national and international levels. An important part of this study is the use of Factors Analysis. This study discovered that:

1.  Communication in aviation is an important variable in providing service and management for all air traffic as well as distributing information and aviation news.

2.  Navigation System is important for providing information, developing, and managing air space, using aircraft with new technology in accordance with ICAO plan for managing flights at present.

3.  Surveillance is required for aircraft flying in areas which cannot be followed such as runway and aircraft approaching each other in areas with high terrains.

4.  Air Traffic Management System is essential for designing procedures for take-off and landing procedures, applying new technology, ‘Performance Based Navigation’ and data base for geography and obstacles.

The analysis from this study, using simulation which significantly affects the air space with maximum safety and efficiency include Aviation Communication, Air Traffic Service System, Navigation System and Surveillance respectively.

NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF UAV IMAGE PROCESSING FOR AGRICULTURE PURPOSE

ACADEMIC YEAR 2021

Nowadays, the technology has been developed continuously. The fastest movement of goods and services is in the aviation and air transport industry, which is considered the fastest way to transport passengers and goods. Aircrafts are characterized by high speed, able to reach various destinations in a short time. In aviation industry, there has been a rapid growth globally in the acquisition and development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a replacement for manned aircraft. This makes UAVs extremely attractive for both present and future. Now, UAVs have become something that cannot be overlooked. There are many interesting things about UAVs, for example, what UAVs is, the advantages of UAVs, and future UAVsusage trends. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft that has no pilot on board but can be controlled. The unmanned aerial vehicles come in different shapes, sizes, styles and uniqueness. Ideally, an unmanned aerial vehicle is commonly referred to as a drone, which is a remote-controlled aircraft from ground based controllers. Almost entirely, the power supply for smaller UAVs usually uses lithium-polymer batteries ,and larger UAVs base on accordance airplane engines or a hydrogen fuel cell. The power source which provides dynamic lift and thrust based on aerodynamics, is controlled by automatic control. The automatic control for UAVs can be divided in two types that are remote automatic control and automated control using a manual flight system that requires a computer program with a complex system already installed in aircraft. The unmanned aerial vehicles technology was introduced for dangerous military missions without risking human life in several military
applications.

The efficiency of unmanned aerial vehicles is continuously improved for various purposes such as ability to endure longer loiter time, flexibility on positioning targets. Commonly, the roles of UAVshave two sectors. These are civilian and commercial sector. The civilian sector focuses on the aerial traffic monitoring, weather forecasting, communication relay, border management, maritime patrol, crime prevention, and many environmental monitoring such as bush fire. The commercial purposes of UAVs include tasks such as agricultural and fisheries management, freight of goods, pipeline monitoring, and aerial photography vice versa. With all the advantages of UAVs, more and more people are turning their attention to it.Objectives to Finish This paper presented a survey on using image processing techniques used in an agricultural context. Employing the processes like segmentation, feature extraction and clustering can be used to interrogate images of the crops. There is a need to select the most appropriate techniques to assist decision-making. Several examples of vision-based applications also have been reported and developed to assist the agricultural production.

NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF THERMOMECHANICS OF GAS-TURBINE VANE

ACADEMIC YEAR 2021

Practically, a gas-turbine engine’s first-stage nozzle guide vane (NGV) must operate under extreme conditions induced by high temperatures from burned gases, causing severe damage to the vane, such as cracks or fatigue failures. As a result, the first stage NGV’s lifespan is shortened.

In other words, the first stage NV’s lifespan is determined by the vane material’s durability. Therefore, effective cooling systems and thermal barrier coating (TBC) are provided. This paper presents a numerical prediction of the thermomechanical sensitivity of the first stage NGV with film cooling under aerothermal conditions and TBC using a 3D CFD/CHT approach with a static structure model for a steady temperature analysis. Turbine inlet temperature (TIT), coolant inlet temperature (CIT), blowing ratio (BR), and TBC thickness, which are key factors for gas turbines’ performance improvement, are used as independent variables. An examination of vane cooling performance is presented in the first part, followed by a prediction of the thermomechanical sensitivity of the vane under the four variables in terms of von Mises equivalent stress and strain in the second part. The findings obtained from both parts show that the relationship between cooling performance and thermomechanical characteristics is sensitive to the influences of turbine inlet temperature (TIT), coolant inlet temperature, and TBC thickness. In addition, the findings indicate the role of the blowing ratio in thermal and mechanical sensitivity for the film-cooled vane.

PRACTICAL PARALLEL OF AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE BY MISSION PLANNER

ACADEMIC YEAR 2021

Satellite imaging has always been a challenging task and at the current time being there are very few alternatives for capturing vertical images of Earth’s vast landscape. Aerial photography by using multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) might be one of the solutions. This research aims to study, improve and demonstrate autonomy for UAVs by using specialized software and apparatus.

In this research we were able to fly a UAV autonomously by using the Mission Planner application, which can be utilized to allow multiple UAVs to fly sequentially in the same pathway without colliding and creating the highest amount of coverage, thus making it important for some remote sensing applications. Certain benefits can be obtained from using UAV rather than satellite imaging such as lower cost of overall equipment than a space satellite and higher resolution pictures due to flexibility in altitude operations. The results of implementing the autonomous UAV will be compared between path of actual flight and the setting way-points and it express exceptional results by presenting less of Root Mean Square Error.

DESIGN OF WING STRUCTURE WITH UNCERTAINTIES

ACADEMIC YEAR 2021

An aircraft wing can be designed using a variety of approaches and models. Therefore, this research proposes to design a Goland wing structure using a two-step approach that concerns the last step uncertainty. The first step starts with performing the design optimization for multi-objective followed by the design of wing mass, stress, and buckling factor, and the reliability test of all solution set. Due to the aircraft wing being subjected to aerodynamics loads, both the structure failure and the material can deviate from the optimum result. Vortex lattice method (VLM) is used for aerodynamics analysis and the finite element analysis (FEA) is analyzed by the structural failure. These techniques are expected to reduce the complexity of Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO). The Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) method is used to quantify uncertainties of the aircraft wing structural design which has studied from comparison with MCS and OLHS in automobile mechanical components’ problem. So that the experimental results including the solution sets are more acceptable and reliable which the proposed approach can be an alternative way for the RBDO technique.

EFFECT OF O-ZONE CONCENTRATION ON AIR CLEANING PERFORMANCE

ACADEMIC YEAR 2021

At present, breathing air on the earth contains many contaminants such as dust, PM (Particle Matter) or infectious diseases in the air. Which can affect the respiratory system and many airborne microorganisms that negatively affect the health of the human body. In this research, researcher tested each level of ozone concentration. To study how much PM and microorganisms in the air were reduced in each ozone concentration. This will be tested in a closed air system in a 25 cubic meter test room. Using an air conditioning system equipped with an ozone generator in the test room. Once the ozone system was switched on, the effects on PM were examined through a machine (VPC 300) and the effect on microorganisms through the culture plates placed at different locations in the test chamber per different interval. The inoculation plates are counted daily to track the amount and growth of microorganisms and compared with conventional air-conditioned rooms without ozone generators. From the results of the experiment, we founded that the ozone system can reduce particle matter in some size of particle matter and eliminate microorganisms in the air of the test room at various concentrations and time periods.

DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF A SOLAR HOT AIR BALLOON

ACADEMIC YEAR 2021

This paper reports on the test of the solar hot air balloons which were tethered to the ground station. Since a solar hot air balloon mainly relies on the solar radiation to heat the air inside the balloon which subsequently necessitates its flight, the measurements of the solar flux throughout the days of testing were initially carried out to estimate the available heat energy which could be absorbed by the balloons. The external and internal thermal factors affecting the balloons can be approximated from the ambient temperature, internal temperature of a balloon, balloon surface temperature, geometric parameters of a balloon, and several constants which are readily available from an analytical model. For the measurements of ambient and internal temperatures, a temperature sensor was placed at the test site and three thermocouples were installed at an interval of approximately 1 m inside the balloon, respectively. Furthermore, a thermal camera was employed to approximate the distributions of the temperature on the balloon surface. Throughout each day of testing, the solar irradiance is observed to steadily increase in the morning, reach the peak value at around noon, and slowly decrease in the afternoon. The amounts of heat gain and heat loss are generally proportional to the solar irradiance. For the solar hot air balloons with similar envelope volumes, the tetrahedral balloon has the largest surface area and is estimated to gain the highest amount of solar radiation.

DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF THE VERTICAL TAKEOFF AND LANDING AIRCRAFT

ACADEMIC YEAR 2021

The design and manufacturing of the new technology to make the eco-friendly air mobility’s for more accessible to everyone. This vehicle applies to the movement theories like the quad/octocopter drone which has 4 armed from the fuselage that each formed have the propeller for generating lift force to moving drone to pitch (Lateral Axis), roll (Longitudinal Axis), yaw (Normal or Vertical Axis).

Nowadays, there were already organizations that start developing this kind of technology for example Lilium GmbH (Lilium Jet from German), EHANG (Ehang184, Ehang216 from China). So far, these companies have developed their company to reach the level that can transport humans. These projects inspired our group to develop our version of it. However, the project having been studied by our group, can only perform round-trip take-off and landing from point one to another by using the knowledge of aviation and knowledge about UAV technology.

Presentation of the report for understanding will be presented by a detailed of the process at each stage, as well as presenting by using video clips as explanatory media (Show the similar model that is already used in the present) for understanding everyone.

CHARACTERIZATION OF A SOLAR HOT AIR BALLOON

ACADEMIC YEAR 2021

This report used solar hot air balloons tethered to a ground station. Since a solar hot air balloon relies mainly on solar radiation to heat the air inside the balloon, which is required for flight, solar flux measurements were taken throughout the testing days to estimate the available heat energy that the balloons might absorb. The ambient temperature, a balloon’s internal temperature, surface temperature, geometric parameters, and many constants readily available from an analytical model can be used to approximate the external and internal thermal factors affecting the balloons. A temperature sensor was installed at the test site, and three thermocouples were installed at approximately 1 m intervals inside the balloon to measure the ambient and internal temperatures. In addition, a thermal camera was used to approximate temperature distributions on the balloon surface. Throughout each day of testing, the solar irradiance is observed to increase in the morning, peak around noon gradually, and then gradually decrease in the afternoon. The amounts of heat gain and loss are generally proportional to solar irradiance. The tetrahedral balloon has the largest surface area and is expected to gain the most solar radiation of the solar hot air balloons with similar envelope volumes.

APPLY TRAJECTORY PREDICTION ALGORITHM FOR BITCOIN TRADING

ACADEMIC YEAR 2021

Immediately, online marketing is growing and it has a huge impact on the economy of each country.  Thus, creating a type of digital asset that many people see as the future currency that will play a role in the trading between  goods and digital assets. Nowadays, the cryptocurrency market is growing up and becoming popular in many countries. The prototype of digital currency, also known as “coin”, is “Bitcoins”. Bitcoin is the most popular and the fastest growing coin in the digital market because it helps increase digital market activity. People are starting to know Bitcoin and its prediction techniques so trading (bitcoin) is something that should be studied and used as a tool to make money. In addition to the famous coin like Bitcoin, there are now other cryptocurrencies such as game coins or NFT to grow in over 1000% in 2-3 months.

On November 4, 2021, reporters reported that after SCB X Group announced that SCB Securities (SCBS) became a major shareholder in Bitkub Online, holding 51% shares worth 17.8 billion baht, ready to be a partner in laying the foundation of digital assets business long term. We can see that nowadays everyone is more interested in investing in coins, not even banks in Thailand.