Student Research 2020

International Academy of Aviation Industry

Wi-Fi Received Signal Strength-based Indoor Localization System Using K-Nearest Neighbors fingerprint integrated D*algorithm

ACADEMIC YEAR 2020

The indoor localization system is essential since the Global Positioning System cannot give an accurate position indoors, especially when several floor plans are considered. Wi-Fi received signal strength becomes an alternative indicator for indoor localization systems. The experiment proposed a localization system created by integrating and working between the K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm and the D*algorithm. The result illustrates the optimal path from the start point to the target point by avoiding performing exceptionally well. The K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm provide the result for localization of the starting point with Root Mean Square Errors of displacement at 1.190 meters, 2.491 meters, and 1.363 meters of X-Axis Y-Axis, respectively. The proposed indoor localization system can have various applications considering different environmental factors in different applications, such as the size of unmanned aerial vehicles when applying indoor unmanned aerial vehicles.

ANTI-MICROORGANISMS IN AIRFLOW FROM AIR CONDITIONER USING CLEANING SYSTEM

ACADEMIC YEAR 2020

Air conditioners are widely used around the world especially in tropical countries. However, the close system of air circulation in the air-conditioning room may increase the opportunity of pathogenic spreading, in case of patient coughs or sneezes. It may enhance the pathogenic epidemic because of the transmission of airborne microorganisms and viruses. Therefore, this project aimed to generate two air cleaning systems (ultraviolet radiation and ozone) which have the potential for microbial reduction or elimination under the relative humidity of air-conditioning systems for normal people. Each extra unit of the air-cleaning system is assembled over the air flowing out of the air conditioner. Enrich mediums for microorganisms were placed in different positions of air-conditioning room for fifteen minutes at different times. Each type of microorganisms grew on an enriched medium was separately counted and analyzed. The result showed that both extra units of the air cleaning systems have efficiency in eliminating microorganisms (yeast, fungi), compared to the non-unit of the air-cleaning system. The ozone cleaning unit is a powerful system in eliminating microorganisms in a short time. These units of air cleaning system will have a very high benefit in human protection, and they can also be applied to different industries.

COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

ACADEMIC YEAR 2020

This thesis is devoted to the study of the overall system used by the unmanned aerial vehicle for detection and maneuvering, which helps in avoiding collisions of unmanned aircraft with other objects or living things. To prevent harm to life and property caused by unmanned aerial vehicle collisions. From the preliminary study of the overall system used by unmanned aircraft for detection and evasion, it was found that journals, articles or research data are not widely available in Thailand. Therefore, it is interesting to learn about the system of unmanned aircraft sensing equipment, which includes the Global Positioning System, the motor speed control system (Electric Speed ​​Control), the monitoring system. Capture the distance by using high frequency sound waves (Ultrasonic Measurement Sensor), temperature and humidity measuring instruments. (Thermo-Hygrometer) and the Arduino microcontroller board (Arduino). As in the experiment using the ultrasonic are good sensors for collision avoidance unmanned aerial vehicle, but after studied and experimenting this thesis are found that adding temperature and humidity sensor to the ultrasonic make it more accurate and faster to detect which is better for using on Unmanned Aerial vehicle. The results from this study can be applied to technology development and use in various industries.

DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF THE VERTICAL TAKE OFF AND LANDING AIRCRAFT

ACADEMIC YEAR 2020

The design and manufacturing of the new technology to make eco-friendly air mobility’s to get more accessible for everyone. This vehicle applied to the movement theories as same as the quad/octocopter drone. The drone has 8 armed from the fuselage that each of the arms has the propeller for generating lift force to move the drone for pitching (Lateral Axis), rolling (Longitudinal Axis), yawing (Normal or Vertical Axis).

Nowadays, there were already organizations that start developing this kind of technology for example Lilium GmbH (Lilium Jet from German), EHANG (Ehang184, Ehang216 from China). So far, these companies have developed their aircraft to reach the level that can transport humans. These projects had inspired our group to develop a new model. However, the project having been studied by our group could perform round-trip; take-off, and landing from one point to another by using the knowledge of aviation and knowledge relating to the UAV technology.

This video presentation demonstrated a detail of the process at each stage of design and manufacturing of this vehicle for understanding to everyone.

EFFECTS OF COOLANT-FLOW DIRECTION ON COOLING PERFORMANCE OF NASA MARK II TURBINE VANE

ACADEMIC YEAR 2020

To obtain high thermal efficiency and power output from a gas-turbine engine, turbine vane of the engine must operate under survive circumstances from high thermal load of burned gas coming out of combustors. Therefore, effective cooling techniques for the vanes are needed. In fact, the typical cooling techniques for modern gas-turbine engines are divided into two approaches i.e., internal cooling and film cooling. This project is to numerically investigate effects of the coolant direction on cooling performance of an internally convective turbine vane named Mark II, a vane reported by NASA. The cooling performance will be presented in terms of surface and structural temperatures under various conditions from the coolant direction using ANSYS FLUENT. Numerical results viz pressure and surface temperature will be validated with experimental data reported by NASA to confirm the accuracy of the computational technique.

SYNTHETIC JET ACTUATOR

ACADEMIC YEAR 2020

 Circulation control wing is a type of high-lift device for utilizing on the principal wing of an airplane to expand the maximum lift coefficient. The more the air attaching on the curved trailing edge or Coanda surface, the more lift is generated. The circulation control wing consists of an air chamber, an orifice, a Coanda surface or a curved surface. In its working principles, the compressed air is bled from either an engine or a compressor and is supplied to an air chamber. This compressed air is then forced through an orifice as an air jet. As this air jet makes contact with the Coanda surface or a curved surface, it tends to adhere itself to this surface due to the Coanda effect and divert the flow field around it to “bend down” resulting in an improved circulation around the airfoil. Hence, lift augmented is achieved. Some feasible advantages yielded from the circulation control wing is drag reduction and an increased reliability due to its involvement with less moving parts.

In this study, a synthetic jet actuator is used to create an air jet for the Coanda surface. Since a synthetic jet actuator typically consists of a cavity, an orifice, and an oscillating diaphragm, this actuator is able to produce a synthetic jet at a wider range of frequency band. The objective of this project is to design a Synthetic Jet Actuator and find the right frequency which the air can adhere itself as long as possible along a Coanda surface or a curved surface to achieve the maximum lift on the airfoil.

FLOW MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION: SCHLIEREN IMAGING

ACADEMIC YEAR 2020

Calculation and studies of airflow movement are important. Not only important to the wings and the other parts of the aircraft, but it is also important to the aerodynamic work of vehicles or other objects. The research’s objective was to design a schlieren imaging setup to achieve the highest quality, resolution, and sharpness of images and videos. Schlieren imaging’s ability will be demonstrated. Moreover, there are test experiments of flow movement in a wind tunnel and flow movement on the airfoil installed by a synthetic jet. The schlieren imaging setup will use equipment; a DSLR camera, parabolic mirror with focal length 800 mm, led light, razor blade, and camera tripod. All of this equipment allows us to see airflow when we place the objects in the right position; the camera and razor blade must be place twice the focal length of the parabolic mirror. Besides, the airflow in the wind tunnel, which call freestream, will be controlled by the air velocity and the amount of gas that allows us to see various forms of flow and flow movement on the airfoil installed by synthetic jet. Therefore, which mass flow rate ratio between gas and freestream in the wind tunnel will be suitable?

GEOGRAPHY ANALYSIS USING SATELLITE IMAGERY AND REGULATIONS OF AIRPORTS IN THAILAND

ACADEMIC YEAR 2020

This paper is the project report of Geography analysis using satellite imagery and regulation of airports in Thailand. This paper objective is to study how certain areas including rain, wind and visibility and regulation affect airport operation to see whether this airport operation and facilities comply with international rules and whether the airport is in good conditions to operate safely by using satellite images from ETOD (Electronic Terrain and Obstacle Data) and Satellite images. The airports that our group are going to analyze are Suvarnabhumi Airport, Chiang Mai Airport and Phuket Airport which were selected as our examples. The data to be analyzed in this project will be collected from the record from 2015 to 2020. The data indicates that all of the airports selected are constructed on an adequate land space possible. All airports in our research comply with international rules. As we continued to analyse, the results are as follows: 1. Suvarnabhumi Airport is constructed on the perfectly flat terrain and surrounded by buildings. However, the problems are regarding the airport’s expansion plan because the second existing runway while that of Suvarnabhumi airport is only 450 m. The new Satellite terminal located in the south of the main concourse can rarely increase the number of passengers and flight capacity. Chiang Mai Airport is already full, and there is nowhere to expand or create the new airport. Therefore, some provisions must be created for Chiang Mai Airport to be implemented so that the operation can be carried out safely and efficiently. Phuket Airport is built in the middle of the town and surrounded by mountains that are viewed as obstacles. Since the number of flights has dramatically increased, there is a significant need to build the new airport or expand the airport. As the result, we choose to expand Krabi airport since it is the only airport that has space for expansion and few obstacles.

HIGH LIFT MECHANISM

ACADEMIC YEAR 2020

The purpose of this research is to present a new approach to synthesize a High lift mechanism (HLM) of a transportation aircraft.The HLM is very important mechanism to generate additional lift to the wing of aircraft in take-off and landing condition with very high precision. The conventional HLM design starts with aerodynamic design of flap motion, which expects to maximize lift/drag ratio. Follow with mechanism synthesis to find the best fit mechanism to control the flap. The aerodynamic study for flap motion in first stage is the most popular in the past causes the crucial design problem is to minimize the error between the motions of a four-bar mechanism for controlling a flap to meet with the target points in the previous stage. In general, it has only two target points that are positions and angles of flap at the take-off and landing positions. The performance in design of the four-bar mechanism depends on optimization technique and number of target points. This kind of mechanism can design to meet the maximum target only nine points, without knowledge the lowest optimum number of the target point. To increasing performance in design of HLM, the new technique for generating path and additional points is proposed. The objectives of minimization are position and angle of flap, while design constraints include the possibility of four-bar mechanism to work well and limiting position. Furthermore, the new formulation of objective function of this problem is proposed, which is expected to increase performance in HLM design. Then, the proposed technique is extended to reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) of HLM. The optimizer is used in this study, is in a group of Metaheuristics (MHs). The results show the proposed method can synthesize the flap mechanism to meet with the design targets and constraints and reliability which means the proposed technique can increase the performance in design of HLM.

MODELLING THE DYNAMIC CRACK PROPAGATION IN BRITTLE MATERIALS

ACADEMIC YEAR 2020

PeriDynamics (PD) is a new non-local theory of continuum which is suitable for studying damage and fracture of materials. In fact, the governing equations defined by peridynamics are integro-differential equations that do not contain any spatial derivatives, making this new theory very attractive for dealing with problems that include discontinuities in the analyzed domain, such as cracks, voids etc. Several numerical methods, such as Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM), have been developed in the last decades for studying the fracture, many of which are based on Classic Theory of Mechanics (CTM). Such methods suffer of numerous drawbacks since the spatial derivatives included in the governing equations cannot be defined in proximity of discontinuities. This limitation can only be overcome by adding ad-hoc equations, making the formulation extremely complex, especially when fracture patterns in 3D domains may be predicted. In order to overcome these limitations of CTM-based numerical methods, the new theory of continuum, PD was recently developed with the intention to remove the spatial derivatives from the governing equations. Moreover, PD can be considered as the continuum version of molecular dynamics since particles can interact with each other if enclosed within a certain distance called horizon. This character of PD makes this new approach a suitable candidate for multi-scale analysis of materials. Furthermore, PD formulation can also be extended to other fields such as thermal, moisture, so that it can be used as a single framework for multiphysics analysis of materials. This work aims to implement PD by using the Finite Element Software (FES) MSC Patran/Nastran in order to predict the dynamic crack propagation in brittle materials. The PD model can be easily generated in Patran by means of in-house codes developed in Matlab environment, followed by the application of boundary conditions in FES. Several numerical simulations are carried out for 2D cases under dynamic loading, therefore, the results are compared with benchmark problems available in literature and the numerical results simulated by means of XFEM tool available in Abaqus software.

MULTIPLE UNMANNED AIR VEHICLE TRAJECTORY PLANNING FOR A COORDINATED RENDEZVOUS STRATEGY BASED ON A NONLINEAR KALMAN FILTER

ACADEMIC YEAR 2020

Since the Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) market is overgrowing, motion planning plays an essential role in several vehicle motions. This research proposes a new UAV guidance method for cooperative UAV missions. This new guidance method combines Line-of-Sigh (LOS) guidance law with the path planning method Bézier curve, namely LOS guidance-based Bézier. The UAV dynamic and simulation is provided by Aerial Informatics and Robotics Simulation (AirSim). This guidance method requires the accuracy localization method. Nowadays, UAV localization information from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) can be blocked or unavailable in some areas, such as underground and indoor areas. Thus, this research presents state estimation for UAVs by treating the information from AirSim as dynamic data. A Global Positioning System (GPS) sensor and a magnetometer sensor obtain data for the measurement model, and the control-input is provided by the LOS guidance-based Bézier algorithm. A nonlinear Kalman Filter is applied, and the simulation results demonstrate that in the case of all available GPS signals, the signal is blocked in the localization state. Moreover, this study also proposes a UAV rendezvous method for smoothly approaching a UAV with LOS guidance based on the relation between velocity and displacement.

PARAMETRIC STUDY ON THE LAMBDA-SHOCK FORMATION OF ONERA M6 WING

ACADEMIC YEAR 2020

It is well-known that a wing is one of the most important parts of an aircraft as it is used to generate lift force. According to a wing moving at high subsonic speeds, the flow speed on the wing upper surface can be supersonic due to acceleration through the curvature-created suction, thereby forming a shock wave in a lambda shape and causing its collapse. These phenomena can lead to flow separation, thus disturbing lift production.

Therefore, a better understanding of the phenomena of wing-lambda-shock formation is essential. This study presents a numerical investigation of the lambda-shock formation on an ONERA M6 wing, which is known as a swept, semi-span wing with no twist, under effects of upstream total pressure (Pt), angle-of-attack (AOA), and free-stream Mach number (Ma), which is increased up to the supersonic region. The coefficients of pressure obtained by simulation are validated by open data reported by NATO. Then, numerical results in terms of the coefficient of pressure, Mach number, and characteristics of the flow field are discussed and presented for the wing-lambda-shock phenomena under an investigated range of the parameters. The present work fulfills the understanding of the lambda shape of pressure and Mach number distributions on swept wings that are caused by two key factors viz the swept leading edge (LE) and the small curvature of an airfoil suction arc.

TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION OF AN AIRCRAFT ENGINE GEARBOX

ACADEMIC YEAR 2020

Topology Optimization (TO) is a mathematical method extensively employed to optimize material layout within the design space, for a given set of boundary conditions with the goal of maximizing the performance of the system. Such a method is different from shape optimization and sizing optimization in the sense that the design can attain any shape within the design space, instead of dealing with predefined configurations. This process takes a three-dimensional design space and whittles material away within it to achieve the most efficient design. This is done without taking care of traditional approaches used in design, such as aesthetics. TO has a wide range of applications in aerospace, mechanical, bio-chemical and civil engineering. Currently, engineers use this mathematical approach at a concept level of a design process, leading to results which are often fine-tuned for manufacturability. Adding constraints to the formulation in order to increase the manufacturability is an active field of research. In some cases, the optimized geometry can be directly manufactured using additive manufacturing, indeed, TO is a key part of design for additive manufacturing. This work aims to apply TO in order to minimize the mass of an engine gearbox via ANSYS software without influencing its mechanical performance. Numerical simulations are carried out by means of CAD and FEM software to design an aircraft gearbox composed of four gears, therefore, irrelevant parts of material are removed in the design space in order to meet the goal of minimizing the mass of the gearbox. The application of TO allows to obtain a better, lighter, and more efficient design of the gearbox by keeping its mechanical performance unchanged.

UNSTEADY VORTEX LATTICE METHOD FOR AERODYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT WING

ACADEMIC YEAR 2020

This thesis is to present a new idea of a reduced-order model of unsteady flows without static correction based on fluid eigenmodes. The new reduced-order model is formulated based on a new form of wake vortices without static correction. This technique is expected to perform a reduced-order model that is similar to the method based on w, but computes much faster than the previous techniques. The new method is used to analyze unsteady flows over a three-dimensional wing and compare with the method based on w. Furthermore, it can also find the lift over the wing of the aircraft. The performances of the present method are demonstrated with numerical examples. The results show the accuracy of the new reduced-order model of unsteady flow with higher computational time-efficiency, but in lift analysis it should be present in original form of the method based on w.  In conclusion, the new method can be considered as an alternative technique to perform the reduced-order models of unsteady flow on aircraft wings.