This project aims to produce and optimize the smoke generator for studying flow visualization. This flow visualization is one of the most popular methods for studying aircraft structure design and aerodynamics. We have designed and assembled the equipment including glass jar, rake, probe, nozzle, cartridge heater, air compressor, fluid pump, air hose adapters, liquid hose adapters and outlet tube. The smoke generator was operated by pumping paraffin oil with nozzle by liquid pump and heating paraffin oil. When paraffin oil was heated by cartridge heater, it changed into smoke. After that, an air compressor pumped the air into the chamber to flow to rake or probe adapters.
To test the performance of the smoke generator, the researchers also studied the appropriate smoke generating condition in test section by using the open circuit wind tunnel to build up the airflow while applying rake and probe adapters as a smoke nozzle. The experiment with rake or probe to generate streamlines or single-streamline respectively for visibility of wake occurring behind the cylindrical model by varying the wind speed by controlling the wind generator input voltage at 20V, 40V and 60V. The experiment reveals that 20V provides the clearest streamline and the obvious wake occurring behind the model. Therefore, the optimized input for stream generator is 20V.
In term of the limitations of the smoke generator for flow visualization, as we assembled various parts together, certain parts may not work efficiently. Also, the duration of the operation should not exceed 20 minutes. Otherwise, the smoke generator should be switched off in order to prevent exceeding temperature and pressure. Therefore, the cartridge heater should be switched on and switched off alternately during operation.
Furthermore, our smoke generator should be combined with open circuit suction type wind tunnel and test section together during operation for efficient flow visualization. However, it can be operated individually if the desired flow visualization does not require precision.
Nowadays in every education about engineering deserve to have device to demonstrate about object that they are sturdy about such as lab equipment and workshop device. Also, in our class, we are studying about Aeronautical engineering then this project is talking aerodynamic demonstration project. This research will show about pressure distribution and Venturi effect. Now this project had already been done for 5 months. Project had already created 3 devices (Adaptor, 2-Nozzle and Venturi tube) and now these devices will be test with others project group to find problem. Researcher will modify device problem. After modifying problem, researcher will connect project. This document is component in the presentation 2 for telling proposal about progress of this project.
Wake consideration with flow visualization gives out strong fundamental ideas of aerodynamics. However, it can only be done if the flow of fluid can be seen. The purpose of this study was to build a compact water tunnel that can produce good quality flow and uses the tracer particles technique to visualize the phenomena occurred when the fluid flow through the bodies with our naked eyes. We have designed a compact water tunnel that can demonstrate the wake consideration with flow visualization in a two-dimensional view. The materials used during the construction included an acrylic plate for the test-section. PVC pipes for the reservoirs. Steel rod, steel plate, iron sling was used for providing additional reinforcement. Natural rubber was used as the tracer particles. Power supply, motor, and propeller was used to induce the flow in the water tunnel. Industrial plastic plate was used to construct the models. We divided the creation of the water tunnel into five steps. First, the reservoirs were created. Second, the test-section was created. Third, the additional reinforcement was created. Fourth, the water tunnel was decorated. Fifth, the water tunnel was assembled. Furthermore, on the creation of the tracer particles, we cut the natural rubber into small pieces. Next, in the creation of models, we cut a plastic plate into designed model shape. The water tunnel can be operated easily by inserting the model into the test-section then connecting the wires from the power supply to the propeller’s motor. The fluid will be induced by the propeller results in a flow of fluid carrying the tracer particles along with it.
The experimental results give us the continuous path of the tracer particles to follow. Therefore, the stagnation point and the point where the flow streamlines separate from the boundary layer can be determined. Furthermore, the wake occurred according to the theory of drag in fluid dynamics behind an object is to be observed. Wake causes drag especially ‘form drag’ (pressure drag) which induces the pressure difference between the front and the back of an object. As a result, the shape that is more streamlined will have a lower wake than a boxy shape.
This compact water tunnel enhances our understanding of the fundamental knowledge of aerodynamics. The advantages over other water tunnel are its lightweight which make it easy to move from place to place, it is durable and low-cost production. On the other hand, the limitation of this apparatus is that it can only show wake and flow pattern in the two-dimension view. Because it is compact and portable, it can be used for facilitating the experiments in the laboratory or in-class activity to assist professors with their teaching. This water tunnel can be used as a prototype to inspire those who might be interested in this field. It is therefore important for researcher to try something different such as using different tracer particles and liquid or even use a different technique to visualize the flow.
In 21st century the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has developed very quickly to reach the human requirement. After Studying the researcher observed that the number of UAV need runway for taking-off. therefore, to overcome the runway requirement the glider launcher is the solution. Launcher allows the UAV to be launched in relatively short distance. This is not always possible to open flat surface that can act as a runway. UAV launcher allows the user to launch the aircraft virtually anywhere.
The following report present the design process of glider launcher specifically from conceptual design to final design. The finished launcher can launch glider multiple time and it reach design criteria. The result was very satisfying.
Coanda effect is the phenomenon in which the jet flow attaches itself to the nearby curved surface. It was named after its discoverer Henri Coanda and can be commonly observed in daily life for example the wine drips the edge of bottle and makes an annoying of pouring or even the flying aircraft also caused by Coanda effect because this phenomenon can cause the lifting force toward object with the jet flow attached. However, the concept of the Coanda effect is not commonly known. Thus, the Coanda effect demonstration apparatus was created to illustrate this phenomenon and measure lifting force occurred. The aim of this study is to illustrate the phenomenon to the audiences and to those who are interested in the Coanda effect phenomenon. The demonstration apparatus indicates the condition of the attaching flow and the amount of lifting force on different shapes of model: straight plate, short curve plate, long curve plate. The Coanda effect demonstration apparatus was created to be used and to be the source of the next generation students.
Flight control systems are the basic methods that use different mechanisms to control an aircraft during performing various activities. It should be noted that flight control systems and characteristics can vary greatly depending on the type of aircraft. The most basic flight control system designs are mechanical control system and date back to early aircraft. There are a few of apparatuses that demonstrate about aircraft control systems but none of them demonstrate about basic flight control system which is corporate with control surfaces directly. A collection of mechanical parts such as rods, cables, pulleys, and sometimes chains to transmit the forces of the flight deck controls to the control surfaces. Mechanical flight control systems are still used today in small general and sport category aircraft where the aerodynamic forces are not excessive. However, the present generation aircraft are using fly-by-wire (FBW) and in future likely to migrate to fly-by-light (FBL) method for aircraft control system. Mechanical and Hydro mechanical flight control systems have been replaced by Fly By-Wire due to increasing speed of modern aircraft and also inherent characteristics of FBL like light weight, compact size, large bandwidth, this is expected to be ideal futuristic flight control system. Finally, basic aircraft flight control systems is valuable for aeronautical engineering field in case of perceive this basic knowledge for their students. Furthermore, those who are interested will perceive the flight control systems knowledge.
Flow instruments are sets of apparatuses. These instruments were made for giving a quantification of fluid movement. We design a pitot-static tube connected to an inclined manometer and multi-tube manometer connected to the cylinder model. Both instruments are pressure-based flow instruments. We were designed for studying and demonstrating flow instruments by using a multi-tube manometer and an inclined manometer.
The first instrument, multi-tube manometer connected to cylinder model was composed of multi-tube manometer glass, base plate, back plate, back plate holder, reservoir holder, fluid reservoir, level adjust screw, back plate support, manometer holder, scale, cross-level, hose fitting, metal bar, and cylinder pipe. The second instrument, inclined manometer was composed of inclined manometer glass, scale, back plate, base plate, manometer holder and pitot-static tube. There were made by using turning, milling, laser-cutting, glass forming, and welding methods.
The experiment result of a multi-tube manometer, we set the pitch angle at 0-degree and set the wind tunnel speed at 220 volts which occurred the most obviously in line with the theory. For the inclined manometer, the results show the percentage error between airspeed from anemometer and airspeed from inclined manometer. Results are inverse with the wind tunnel speed. That means when the wind tunnel speed increases, the percentage error decreases.
This study gives us an opportunity to understand the instrument used in the aviation industry. We learn from the experiences in solving problems during conducting this project. The instruments which we produce will be one of the most useful equipment in department of aeronautical engineering laboratory for learning and researching. We hope our instrument could be of any assistance to an education in aeronautical engineering.